# The key role within the evolution of mathematics played Egypt and Babylon. People and academics of these civilizations have produced an huge contribution to the improvement of geometry, arithmetic, and in some cases laid the foundation for the emergence of algebra.

The Babylonian kingdom arose in the beginning of II millennium BC. e. around the territory of modern Iraq, replacing Sumer and Akkad, and inheriting their advanced culture. Existed till the Persian conquest in 539 BC. e. Babylonian cuneiform writing on clay tablets icons which a considerable quantity have survived. So, there’s a pretty full image of the mathematical achievements of scientists Babylonian State. The roots of the Babylonian culture was largely inherited in the Sumerians – cuneiform writing, countable approach and so on. Babylonian mathematical texts are mainly educational in nature… They show that the calculated Babylonian strategy was far superior Egyptian, and the range of tasks is much wider. There are actually tasks to resolve quadratic equations, geometric progression. In solving the applied proportions, arithmetic mean, percentages.

## About the mathematics of ancient Babylon and their scientific achievements

As the Babylonians system was positional, their calculations were particularly similar to ours. When subtraction and addition they just add and subtract numbers digit by digit. An additional advantage was that the sexagesimal digits indicate nepozitsionnyh manner by ones and tens, and in such a system to subtract and add a lot much easier than in our abstract notation requiring specific addition understand paper writings the table.

The Babylonians the graduate papers have been the founders of astronomy. Their findings on the length with the big cycles and periods in the planetary program features a fairly higher degree of accuracy; For instance, the lunar month in Babylonian mathematics is various from pleasant in contemporary astronomy just 0.four seconds. It was made its own program of weights and measures, in which each successive worth proved to become more than the previous 60 instances. Hence it originated the contemporary division of time – seconds, minutes, hours. With regard for the measurement of angles from ancient Babylon towards the present day came oboznachpenie a single sixtieth of a degree (minute) plus the acceptable selection of 360 degrees.